HR Study Materials -Flashcard-1

Job specialization - Breaking down a task into smaller parts, and having each part or step of the task performed by a different individual.

Departmentalization - The process of grouping various activities into natural units by logical arrangements.

Center of excellence - A department, such as cardiology or oncology, chosen by the healthcare organization to receive special attention and resources. Centers of excellence are sometimes called "institutes."

Traditional structure - The most common form of organizational design, in which hierarchical relationships develop vertically, and each employee reports to one superior.

Matrix organization - An organizational structure that adds cross department. In a matrix organization, employees often report to more than one superior.

Role theory - The concept that when employees receive inconsistent expectations and little information, they experience role conflict, which leads to stress, dissatisfaction, and ineffective performance.

Organic structure - An organizational structure in which jobs tend to be general, few rules and regulations exist.

Organic structure communications - The communication are vertical, diagonal, and horizontal, and the organization is highly adaptive and flexible and encourages decentralized decision making by the employees.

Vertical chart - An organizational chart that shows the different levels of the organization in a step arrangement in the form of a pyramid

Horizontal chart - An organizational chart that reads from left to right, stressing functional relationships more than hierarchical levels.

Circular chart - An organizational chart that depicts the various levels in concentric circles rotating around the top level administrator, who is at the hub of the wheel.

Inverted pyramid chart - An organizational chart featuring the chief administrator on the bottom and others farther up. This chart expresses the idea that the superiors support those who report to them.

Delegation of authority - The act of a superior granting authority on some level to a subordinate.

Scalar chain - The line of vertical authority relationships from superior to subordinate. Also called the chain of command.

The three essential parts of the delegating process. 1 of 3 –

·         1 The assignment of duties and the defining of the results expected by a manager to the immediate subordinates.

·         2 The granting of permission (authority) to the subordinates to make decision and commitments, use resources, and take the actions normally necessary to perform their assigned duties.

·         3 The creation of an obligation (responsibility) on the part of each subordinate to the delegating superior to perform the assigned duties satisfactorily (accountability)

Grooming - The process of preparing another individual to take on more authority and responsibility.

Exception principle - The principle that some decisions faced by an individual are beyond his scope of authority and must be referred to his superior.

General supervision - Provides orders in broad terms, with the expectation that the employees will decide how to reach those goals.

Re-engineering - A reorganization process in which leadership determines the best way to accomplish its tasks, regardless of how those tasks were accomplished in the past.

Six Sigma - A combination of re-engineering principles and quality improvement approaches that focuses on delivering defect free services and products.

Conformance quality - A level of work outcome that meets the minimum standard.

Requirements quality - A level of work outcome that meets customer expectations.

Quality of kind - A level of work outcome that exceeds customer expectations.

Timesizing - A cost-cutting technique that involves employees taking unpaid time off, or using accrued vacation time.

Attritiion - The practice of not replacing employees who leave

Committee - A formal group with defined purposes and relationships within an organization.

Standing Committee - A committee whose purpose is long term or permanent.

Informational meeting - A meeting in which the leader presents information and facts, usually with limited discussion from other members.

Discussional meeting - A meeting in which the leader encourages other members to participate.

Group deliberation - The practice of discussing issues among all members of a committee.

Groupthink - The result of allowing group discussion to be dominated y a desire to find group concurrence on a conclusion, even if facts point to another conclusion

Grapevine - The informal communications network in an organization.

Status position - One of four positions vis a vis the informal organization. These are the informal leader, members of the primary group, members on the fringe of the group, and those outside the fringe.

Staffing - The managerial function concerned with the procurement and maintenance of human resources.

Human resources management - The management, including planning, of the staffing function.

Recruitment - The process of locating qualified candidates.

Selection - The process of choosing from the pool of applicants.

Unity of command concept - Each person should take orders from and report to only one boss.

Recruiting - The process of attracting and seeking a pool of applicants from which to choose a qualified candidate.

Job description - A document that describes the duties and responsibilities of a position

Job specification - A document that identifies the minimum acceptable qualifications of a person in that position.

Job analysis - A study of the jobs within an organization to document the activities, tools used, and working conditions of each position.

Transfer - A reassignment of an employee to another job of similar pay, status, and responsibility.

Outsourcing - Contracting with a third party to handle some aspect of an organization's work.

Offshoring - Using an outsourcing contractor who uses labor from countries other than the United States.

Flextime - Scheduling that allows employees to modify their personal schedule to fit their off-the-job activities.

Compressed scheduling - Special schedules - such as 10-hour days, 4 days per week - that squeeze more work into fewer days.

Virtual positions/Telecommuting - Jobs that are held by employees who work off site such as home.

Telecommuting/Virtual positions - Working form home or another off-site location.

Appraisal interview - An interview that may take on characteristics of both directive and non-directive interviews. Usually designed to discuss an employee's strengths and weaknesses.

Directive interview - A structured interview between a supervisor and employee in which the interviewer knows beforehand the goals, objectives, and areas of discussion.

Non-directive interview - An unstructured interview between a supervisor and an employee often used to discuss a problem or grievance. Also called a counseling interview.

Employment interview - An interview between a supervisor and a prospective employee designed to determine if the prospective employee is a good fit for the position, and vice versa. Also called a pre-employment interview.

Halo effect - A circumstance in which an interviewer bases an applicant's potential for job performance on one or tow characteristics and allows this impression to color all the other factors.

Performance appraisal - A formal system of measuring, evaluating, and influencing an employee's job related activities.

Comparative standards - An assessment method that compares employees to other employees in the department.

Critical incidents assessment - An assessment method in which the supervisor focuses on specific behaviors that separate effective from ineffective performance.

Graphic rating scale - An assessment method that uses a list of performance factors that the supervisor uses to rate employee performance.

Behaviorally anchored rating scales(BARS) - An assessment method that combines elements from the critical incidents and graphic rating scale assessments.

360-degree feedback - An assessment method that incorporates feedback from all of an employee's coworkers, including superiors,peers, and subordinates. Also called multi-source or multi-rater feedback.

Succession planning - Preparing employees to take on new assignments within or outside of the employee's current department.

Skills inventory - A list of skills an individual possesses, regardless of whether the skill is applicable to the person's job.

Mentor - An individual who helps a subordinate establish goals and a path to achieve them.

Self-appraisal - A self-rating by an employee, which provides a supplemental source of appraisal input.

Performance development plan - A plan to facilitate correction of weaknesses identified during a performance appraisal.

Central tendency - The tendency to appraise all employees as roughly average.

Management by objectives (MBO) - A management tool developed by Peter Drucker that uses measurable objectives to motivate and evaluate performance.

Internal alignment - Aligning salaries of positions within a department.

Job evaluation - A method of determining the relationships between pay rates and the relative monetary value of jobs within a department.

Wage survey - A survey that collects data on wages paid in the community for similar key jobs in similar or related enterprises.

Benchmark job - Jobs that are similar in every healthcare organization, such as dietitian and housekeeper.

External alignment - Aligning salaries within an organization with salaries of similar positions outside the organization but within the surrounding community.

Assessment center approach - A method of evaluating in-house candidates for promotion to management.

Autocratic supervision - A management style based on Theory X, i.e., that involves little participation by subordinates in the decision-making process.

Micromanaging - The practice of directing every detail of a subordinate's action.

Consultative supervision - A type of supervision based on the assumption that employees are eager to do a good job, have the motivation to perform their best, and are capable of doing so. Also called participative, democratic, and permissive supervision.

4 Es approach - A technique to engage subordinates in planing for changes that involves engagement, empathy, educations, and enlistment.

Theory Z - A management approach that is base on lifetime employment, slow promotion paths, consensual decision making, collective responsibility, and informal controls, Theory Z assumes workers want to build strong relationships with their colleagues.

Free-reinleadership - A leadership approach that assumes that individual employees are self-motivated and perform well with minimum supervision. Also called laissez-faire leadership

Force-field analysis - An approach to overcoming resistance to change that involves openly discussing the pros and cons of a planned change.

At-will employment - Meaning that an employment relationship could be terminated by either party at any time for any reason or without a reason



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