HR Flashcard2



Copyright Act

defines the protection provided to authors of "original works"

Public domain

Status of a work when copyright protection ends; in general, copyright protection covers the life of the author plus 70 years

Fair use

Provision of the Copyright Act that allows the use of copyrighted work in certain circumstances

Fair use Doctrine 4 factors

1- purpose /character of use 2- nature of the work itself 3- amt of work? 4- effect?

U.S. Patent Act

Act that established the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Design Patent

protect new, original & ornamental design of mfg items - limit 14 yrs

Plant Patent

protects invention of or discovery of asexually reproduced varieties of plants for 20 yrs

Utilities Patent

protects the invention of new & useful processes, machines, mfg or composition of matter - limit 20 yrs

Trademark Act

Act that provides federal protection for trademarks and service marks

Organizational development

Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions; looks at org's technology, process, structure, & hr

Organizational culture

Shared attitudes and perceptions in an organization

OD Interventions

used to implement change, directed toward structure, process, technology, etc

4 Categories of ODIs

1- strategic 2- techno-structural 3- human process 4- human resource management

3 types of strategic interventions

1 - change management 2- knowledge management 3- learning orgs

change Management

changing org

Change process theory

Dynamics through which organizational change takes place; 1- Unfreezing 2- Moving 3- Refreezing

Change Agent

HR can act as change agent during this process

Knowledge Management

Process of capturing, retaining, & distributing org knowledge

Community of Practice

an informal grp willing to share their experiences & expertise w/co/workers

Knowledge Management System

Provides a method for verifying & retaining org info to solve future problems

Purpose of Knowlege Management

to make sure each E has same basic trng & that each has access to info from other depts so Es don't have 2 perform same task multiple times

Learning Organization

is a type of co where Es r encouraged 2 dev to keep up to speed & keep org competitive, promote open exchange of ideas, rewards for excep perf

Senge's 5

disciplines that enable continuous learning Systems thinking, Personal mastery, Mental Models, Building shared vision, team learning

systems thinking

ability of individs & orgs 2 recog pattterns & project how changes will impact them

Personal Mastery

describes a high level of expt in a chosen field & a committment to lifelong learning

Mental models

deep-seated beliefs that color perceptions, affecting how 1 cs the world & how they react 2 it

bldg shared vision

encourages org 2 plan 4 future, nspiring cmtmnt of entire org

team learning

the ability of a team 2 share & bld upon their ideas w/o holding bak

Techno-Structural Intervention

ODIs in this category address issues of how wk gets done n the org by looking at level of Es involvment & resigning wk processess

3 types of techno-structural IDs (3)

1- Total Quality Managment 2- Six Sigma 3- High involvement orgs

Total Qual Msngmt

Strategic, integrated management system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization's processes

W. Edwards Demming

14 pt program for managing quality; if the company made poor products it was essentially their fault and no one else's


"fitness to use": reliabiity a product or service for its users

Juran Trilogy

quality planning, quality control, quality improvement

Quality Planning

initiates programs by addressing qual concerns during the prod or svc development process

Quality Control

ensures conformance 2 the parameters estbld n the planning phase during the ops phase

Qual Improvements

r used 2 continually improve ops & reduce waste

Quality mngmt Tools 7

check sheets, histograms, Pareto chart, cause & effect diagram, stratisfication, scatter charts, process control charts

Check sheets

Simple visual tools used to collect and analyze data


Graphic representation of the distribution of a single type of measurement; data is represented by a series of rectangles of varying heights

Pareto chart

Vertical bar graph on which bar height reflects frequency or impact of causes

Stratification Charts

show how the individ components of a prob, identifying possible strategies 4 correcting probs

Scatter Charts

aka xy chart, provides a graph rep 4 the rel btw 2 #s this info provides info re data analysis & the concept of correlation

cause & effect diagram

aids in organizing info during brainstorming sessions

Process control charts

provide graph rep used for determing variances in production processes over time

Phillip B. Crosby four quality attributes

1)a definition of quality 2) Do It Right The 1st time,a prevention system (rather than appraisal of quality), 3) a performance standard (zero defects), 4) the measurement of quality ( the cost of nonconformance)

Six Sigma

DAMIC Disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects by focusing on process defects DMAIC


define, measure analyze, improve, control

High involvement Orgs

Es r involved n designing their own wk processes, r empowered 2 take actions to complete wk, & r acctbl 4 results. broadly defined jobs, flat hierarchies w/ cont feedback & info flows btw & amg self-directed wk teams

HIO 4 factors must b present

1- power 2- knowledge 3- info 4- rewards

Human Process Interventions

focuesed on developing competencies at the individual level

HPI Methods 4

1- team-bldg actvities 2- conflict resolution 3- mngmt by obj 4- emotional intelligence

Team Bldg Activities

blds relationships w/in the team 2 communicate expectations & 2 nvolve team members into developing creative & effective ways of getting goals done

Conflict Resolution

process of developing strategies for resolving issues & maintaining or rebldg effective wking rels


management by objectives; employees help set objectives for themselves, defining what they tend to do achieve within a specified timeperiod

Emotional Intelligence

Ability of an individual to be sensitive to and understanding of the emotions of others and to manage his or her own emotions and impulses

HR management intervention

focus on individuals w/in org

HRMI examples

dev hiriing & selection procedures, designing jobs, dev perf mngmt systems, dev diversity programs, dev reward systems

Mngmt Development

seeks to upgrade skills for mngrs who r accntble 4 achieving results thru others

Leadership development

Seeks out Es who show promise as potential leaders

3 levels of employee training

1- organizational 2- task 3- individual

ADDIE 5 step design process deve hr dev programs.

1- analysis 2- design 3- dev 4- implementation 5- evaluation


Process of providing knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) specific to a task or job


Readiness to learn, combining students' level of ability and motivation with their perceptions of the work environment

passive training methods

lecture, presentation, conference

active training methods

facilitation, case study, simulation, vestibule, socratic seminar

Vestibule training

offline, instructor led trng designed bring a learner up 2 prod standards b/f assuming online responns

Experiential training methods real time situations (3)

1- demonstration 2- 1on1 3- performance


Delivery of formal and informal training and educational materials, processes, and programs via the use of electronic media

Distance learning

Process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site

Blended learning

Planned approach to learning that includes a combination of methods such as classroom, e-learning, self-paced study, and performance support such as job aids or coaching

Theater-style seating

best 4 lectures, films, video presentations, holds most people

Classroom style seating

listening to presentations while using manuals or handouts or taking notes

Banquet-style seating

participants will b taking part in sm grp talks & interacting w/ ea other & doing activities in a single grp

chevron-style seating

4 interacting w/ea other & instructor, good for bigger mtg & good 4 doing several activities, w or w/o tables

conference style seating

grp with equal status & mtg led by facilitator instead of instructor provides max interaction but not gd for visual aids

U-shaped seating gd 4 collaborative training situations


Training eval models (4)

1- reaction 2- learning 3- behavior 4- results

Reaction Eval Method

surveys at the end of training

Learning Eval Method

uses a test to measure if grp learned what they were supposed to learn

Behavior Eval Method

mearsures job perf 6 wks 2 6 mths a/f training

Results Eval Method

provides most meaningful feedback for biz

Performance management

Process of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching, and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback

Performance appraisal

Process that measures the degree to which an employee accomplishes work requirements

Perf Appraisal Methods 4 types

Comparison, Rating, Narrative, Behavioral

Comparison Method 3 types

1- ranking 2- paired comparison 3- forced ranking

paired comparison

employee is paired with every other employee and compared, one at a time, using the same scale for performance

Forced Ranking

uses bell curve

Rating methods 2

1- rating scales 2- checklists

Narrative Methods 3

1- critical incident 2- essay 3- field review

Behavioral Methods 2

1- BARS 2- continuous feedback


behaviorally anchored rating scale; designed to combat category rating by describing desirable undesirable behavior

inter-rater reliability

uses multiple raters to reduce rating error due to bias


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