Study cards for PMP Exam



to design quality Answer

6 Processes in Project Time Management

Define Activities, Sequence activities, Estimate Activity Resource, Estimate Activity Duration, Develop Schedule, Control Cost

Scheduling Methodology definition

defines the rules and approaches for scheduling processes

2 common scheduling methodologies.

CPM (Critical Path Methodology) & Critical Chain

What plan documents the project time management processes and their associated tools and techniques

schedule management plan

Schedule Management plan is a subsidary of or contained in what plan?

Project Management Plan

3 Inputs to Define Activities Process

Scope Baseline, EEF, OPA

3 outputs of Define Activities Process

Activity List, Activity Attributes, Milestone List

5 Inputs to Sequence Activities Process

Activity List, Activity Attributes, Milestone List, Project Scope Statement, OPA

2 Outputs from Sequence Activities?

Project Schedule Network Diagrams, Project Document Updates

5 Inputs to Estimate Activity Resources?

Activity List, Activity Attributes, Resource Calendars, EEF,OPA

3 Outputs of Estimate Activity Resources?

Activity resource requirements, Resource Breakdown Structure, Project Document Updates

7 Inputs to Estimate Activity Durations

Activity List, Activity Attributes, Activity Resource Requirements, Resource Calendars, Project Scope Statement, EEF, OPA

2 outputs of Estimate Activity Durations

Activity Duration Estimates, Project Docuiment Updates

9 Inputs to Develop Schedule?

Activity List, Activity Attributes, Project Schedule Network Diagrams, Activity Resource Requirements, Resource calendars, Activity Duration Estimates,Project Scope Statement, EEF, OPA

4 Outputs of Develop Schedule

Project Schedule, Schedule baseline, Schedule Data, Project Document Updates

4 Inputs to Control Schedule

Project Management Plan, Project Schedule, Work performance information, OPA

5 Outputs of Control Schedule

Work Performance Measurements, OPA updates, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Document Updates

Tools and Techniques used in Define Activities

-Decomposition -Rolling Wave Planning -Template -Expert Judgement

Tools & Techniques used in Sequence Activities

-Precedence Diagramming method (PDM) -Dependency Dettermination -Applying leads and lags -Schedule network templates

Tools and Techniques used in Estimate Activity Resource

-Expert Judgement -Alternatives Analysis -Published Estimating Data -Bottom up estimating -Project Management Software

Tools and Techniques used in Estimate Activity Durations

-Expert Judgement -Analagous Estimating -Parametric Estimating -Three Point Estimates -Reserve analysis

Tools & Techniques used in Develop Schedule

-Schedule network Analysis -Critical path method -Critical chain method -Resource leveling -What if scenarion analysis -Applying leads anfd lags -Schedule compression -Scheduling tool

Tools & Techniques in Control Schedule

-performance reviews -variance analysis -project management software -resource leveling -what if scenarion analysis -adjusting leads and lags -schedule compression -scheduling tool

What is PDM?

Precedence Diagramming Method

What is a common technique of PDM?

Activity on Node (AON)

Three dependencies (types of logic) with AON

Mandatory - Hard logic Discretionary - Soft logic External - Depends on input from outside the project activities

Four relationship Types


Define Lag

modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity

define Lead

modification in a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity

6 Estimate Activity Durations Methods

-One Time -Three Point -Monte Carlo -Analogous Estimating (Top-Down) -Bottom up -Parametric

Rolling Wave Planning

More detail to near term deliverables while future at a more general level

3 Schedule Formats?

-Bar Chart -Milestone chart -Network Diagram with Dates

Wait inserted between tasks


Amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying project

Float or slack

Which Scheduling term considers resource limitations and adjusts the schedule to work within those functions

Critical Chain Methods

2 Schedule compression techniques

-Crashing -Fast tracking

3 Processes in Project Cost Management

-Estimate Costs -Determine Budget -Control Costs

6 Inputs to Estimate Costs

-Scope Baseline -Project Schedule -Human Resources Plan -Risk Register -EEF -OPA

9 Tools and Techniques of Estimating costs

-Expert Judgement -Analogous estimating -Parametric estimating -Bottom up estimating -Three point estimates -Reserve analysis -Cost of quality - Project Management Estimating software -Vendor bid analysis

3 outputs of Estimate Costs

-Activity Cost Estimates -Basis of Estimates -Project Documetn Updates

7 Inputs to Determine Budget

-Activity Cost Estimates -Basis of estimates -Scioe Baseline =Project Baseline -Resource Calendars -Contacts -OPA

5 Tools and Techniques of Determine Budget

-Cost Aggregation -Reserve analysis -Expert Judgement -Historical relationships -Funding Limit reconciliation

3 outputs of determine budget

-Cost performance Baseine -Project funding requirements -projet document updates

4 Inputs to Control costs

-Project Management Plan -Project funding Requirements -Work performance information -OPA

6 Tools and techniques to Control Costs

-Earned value management -Forecasting -To-Complete Performance Indes (TCPI) -Performance reviews -Variance analysis -Project management software

6 outputs of Control costs(Exapmle of each as well)

-Work performance measurements(CV,SV,CPI,SPI for WBS components) -Budget Forecasts(Calculated EAC value or Bottom Up Estimation )-OPA Updates(Variance cause, documented lessons) -Change requests -Project management plan updates -Project document updates

What process enables PM to know if they should include funds above estimate to reduce risk of overruns & what are these funds called

Reserve analysis, Contingency reserves

What happens to Contingency as project/Activity progresses?


What are three elements of Scope Baseline

-Scope Statement -WBS -WBS Dictionary

6 Elements of Scope Statement

-Product Description -acceptance criteria -key deliverables -project boundaries -assumptions -constraints about project

Define Basis of estimates

Basis of estimate is basically a definition of how the estimates were derived.

Define Cost Aggergation

Aggregate cost estimates for work packages in WBS

Reserve analysis can establish what?

Contingency reserves & Management reserves

Define Management reserves

budgets reserved for unplanned changes to project scope and cost

What is funding limit reconciliation?

determining if the variance between funding limits and planned expenditures warrents rescheduling

What is the authorized time-phased BAC?

CPB - Cost performance baseline

Shape of CPB?


Define EVM

Earned Value Management - Method of performance measurement that integrates project scope, cost and schedule measurements to help the project management team asses and measure project performance

Three deminsions of EVM

-Planned Value -Earned Value -Actual Cost

Define PV

Planned Value - authorized budget assigned to the work to be accomplished

Total project PV (Two terms)

PMB - Performance measurement baseline BAC - Budget at completion

Define EV

Earned Value - value of workperformed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to the work activity or WBS component.

Define AC

Actual Cost- total cost actually incurred and recorded on accomplishing work performed for an activity

Define SV & Give formula

Schedule Variance - measure of schedule performance on a project

When does SV always = 0

When project is completed

Define CV & Give formula

Cost Variance - Measure of cost performance of project. EV-AC

Define SPI and give formula

Schedule Performance Index - Measure of progress achieved compared to progress planned -SPI=EV/PV

Define CPI and give formula.

Cost performance Index - Measure of the value of the work completed to the actual cost or progress made -CPI=EV/AC

What is the most important EVM metric


What does the CPI represent in relation to 1

CPI <1 = cost overrun CPI>1 = cost underrun

What does PM do when BAC is no longer viable

Develop forecasted EAC

What is EAC based on?

Actual cost of work performed plus and ETC (Estimate to Complete) -EAC=ETC(Bottom up) +AC

EAC forecast for ETC work performed at the budgeted rate - formula and when used

EAC = AC + BAC - EV (Only use when assuming improved project performance determined by risk analysis)

EAC forecast for ETC work performed at present CPI - formula and when used

EAC=BAC/Cumulative CPI -(when assuming consistent performance

EAC forecasts for ETC work considering both SPI and CPI- formula and when used

AC+[(BAC-EV)/Cumulative CPI * Cumulative CPI] (Used when negative cost performance and requirement to meett firm requirement)

TCPI - Formula and definition

BAC:(BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC) EAC: (BAC-EV)/(EAC-AC) - Projection of cost performance that must be achieved on remaining work to meet a specific management goal

3 types of analysis for performance reviews under EVM

earned value performance trend analysis Variance analysis

In variance analysis, what are CV and CPI used to asses?

Magnitude of variation to the cost baseline

3 Processes in Quality Management

-Plan Quality -Perform Quality Assurance -Perform Quality Control

What is involved in Performing Quailty Assurance

Auditing quality requirements and the results from Quality control measurements

Quality Vs Grade

Defect Rate Vs Feature list

7 Inputs to Plan Quality

-Scope Baseline -Stakeholder Register -Cost Performance Baseline -Schedule Baseline -Risk Register -EEF -OPA

9 Tools and Techniques to Plan Quality

-Cost benefit analysis -Cost of quality -Control Charts -Benchmarking -Design of experiments -Statistical Sampling -Flowcharting -Proprietary quality management methodologies -Additional Quality planning tools

5 outputs of planning quality

-Quality management plan -quality metrics -quality checklists -Process improvement plan -project document updates

4 Inputs to Perform Quality Assurance

-Project management plan -Quality Metrics -Work performance information -quality control measurements

3 tools and techniques to perform quality assurance

-paln quality and perfiorm QC tools and techniques -Quality audits -Process analysis

4 outputs of perform quality assurance

-OPA Updates -Change requests -Project management plan update -Project documents

7 Inputs to Perform Quality Control

-Project management Plan -Quality Metrics -Quality Checklist -ork percormance measurements -Approved Change requests -Deliverables -OPA

10 tools and techniques to Perform QC

-Cuase and effect diagram -Control charts - Flowcharting -Histogram -Pareto Chart -Run Chart -Scatter Diagram -Statistical sampling -Inspection -Apprioved Change Request review

7 outputs to Perform QC

QC Measurements -Validated Changes -Validated deliverables -OPA Updates -Change REquests -PMP Updates -Project document updates

2 divisions of COQ

-Cost of conformance -cost of nonconformance

Who bears responsibility of quality

entire organization

define quality in relation to requirements

degree to which a set of inherent characteristics xatisfies requirements

Acuracy vs precision

Accuracy = hitting target, precision= consistency

define plan quality and when is it performed?

process of identifying quality requirements and documenting how project will maintain compliance. Throughout project

List and define 3 types of qulity costs

-Prevention - upfront costs to design quality -Appraisal - Costs associated with evaluating whether the programs or processes meet the requirements

3 elements of a HR Plan

-Roles and Resp -Staffing Mgt Plan -Org charts

who is responsible for managing triple constraints

Senior mgt

3 types of responsibility chart

-RAM - Shows who does what, but not when -Resource histogram/Staffing mgt plan - Resource allocated/time period -Gantt Chart - Shows when staff is allocated to task

RAM uses What to assign responsibilities


Common format of staffing management plan


Schedule variance (Formula)


Cost Variance(Formula)


Cost Performance Index (Formula)


Schedule Performance Index


EAC Formula

AC+Estimate to complete

EAC if past variances are expected to be atypical


EAC if past variances are expected to be typical

EAC=BAC/Cumulative CPI

To calculate the budget that will be required to increase the amount of resources to a level that will allow the work to be completed in the remaining time:

EAC = AC + [(BAC - EV) / (cumulative CPI x cumulative SPI)]

To-complete performance index (TCPI) When using the BAC

TCPI = (BAC - EV) / (BAC - AC)

To-complete performance index (TCPI) When using the EAC

TCPI = (BAC - EV) / (EAC - AC)


Conduct that results in physical harm or creates intense feelings of fear, humiliation, manipulation, or exploitation in another person is defined as harassment by the PMI code.


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