Respiratory Test #1

What is Cilia?Fine hairs that move mucus to the back of the throat. Helps prevent irritation and contamination of lower airways
What purpose does the paranasal sinuses serve?Lighten the weight of the skull and give resonance to the voice.
What purpose does the laryngopharynx serve?Serves as a passage for breathing and eating. Tonsils and adenoids are located here.



What prevents food from falling into the trachea?Epiglottis
What lines the lung surface?Visceral pleura
Internal RespirationProcess by which oxygen is transferred from the blood to body cells and carbon dioxide is passed from the body cells to the blood to be eliminated from the body
External Respiration(Ventilation) consist of the movement of oxygen into the lungs (inhalation) and the removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs (exhalation)
What pattern does inhaled air follow?Nose, Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Alveoli
What is dyspnea?Period of difficulty breathing
What position would someone experiencing dyspnea be most comfortable in?Sitting upright
Define Cheyne stokes respirations.Pattern of respiration in which shallow, rapid, breathing is followed by a period of apnea. (Usually occurs before someone dies)
Define tachypneaIncreased rate of breathing. Usually over 20 breaths per minute.
If you have a patient that isn't getting adequate O2 exchange what is an appropriate nursing diagnosis?Impaired airway clearance
Where does the oxygen/carbon dioxide change take place?Alveoli capillary membrane
Define PerfusionThe flow of blood within the circulatory system
What kind of blood does the pulmonary vein carry from the lungs?oxygenated
What could happen if there is an abnormal contour of the chest like with scoliosis?Could result in incomplete or restricted lung expansion
In what position would a patient have maximum lung capacity and volume?Standing
Describe crackles.Results from delayed opening of deflated airways. Sounds like static or strands of hair being rubbed together. May be from inflammation or congestion. Can be cleared with coughing
Your patient has an ABG ordered. What areas might you see this lab test be drawn from?radial, brachial, or femoral arteries
What would be a normal pH?7.35-7.45
What controls the ratio of bicarbonate changing the carbonic acid?Kidneys
What would be a treatment for Respiratory alkalosis?Measures to slow respiratory rate, breathing into a paper bag, sedation
What type of information is given by a pulse oximetry?Oxygen content in hemoglobin
What does a positive Mantoux skin test indicate?infection or exposure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
What might be determined by a sputum and c&s?What antibiotics should be used for that particular infection. Also diagnosis cancer cells and diagnosis TB(which takes 3 tests)
Why would you always get a c/s specimen prior to administering antibiotics?It might make it difficult to get an accurate c/s
What is viewed during a fluoroscopy?The thoracic cavity with all it's contents in motion
Your patient is scheduled for a procedure where radioactive contrast medium will be used. What allergies do you need to assess for?Iodine or shellfish allergies
Your patient is scheduled for a bronchoscopy. What do you tell them about food/fluid intake?NPO for 6 hours prior to the procedure
What are some complications of bronchoscopy?Hypotension, Bracycardia, Bronchospasms, Pneumothorax, Aspiration, Hypoxemia, Bleeding, Dysrythmias
What are the postop care instructions for a patient that had a bronchoscopy?NPO until gag reflex is back, Semi fowler's position, Monitor v/s, Watch for hemoptysis, swelling of the face & neck, stridor, decreased or asymmetric chest movement, diminished lung sounds, Tell pt there may be blood in sputum cause of throat irritation
The pt has undergone a thoracentesis and they become dyspnic, tachypenic, and hypertensive. These are s/s of:Lung has been punctured
What is the primary nursing prevention that prevents ateletasis?Deep breathing and coughing which are done to aid in lung expansion and expectoration of respiratory secretions
What does pursed lip breathing promote?Promotes carbon dioxide elimination. It inhibits airway collapse and decrease dyspnea in patients with chronic lung disease
What might you see postop to prevent atelectasis?Incentive spirometer
What can you have patients do to help liquefy respiratory secretions?Aerosol Therapy
If you have a patient that is on 3L of O2 and they become lethargic and are experiencing bradypneia what could this be a sign of?Oxygen toxicity
You have a patient with COPD and emphysema. Why would you never administer O2 over 3L?They have become used to high CO2 levels. If O2 levels increase it will stop the hypoxic drive(bodies urge for oxygen)
What is CPAP and what does it maintain?Continuous Positive Airway Pressure - maintains positive pressure in the airway during sleep, thereby avoiding periods of apnea
Key points about oxygen:Check liter flow against MAR Monitor pt response O2 sats and ABG If humidification used, use sterile water Replace & clean equipment to prevent infection No petroleum products NO SMOKING!
The common cold is known by what other name?Rhinitis or Coryza
What type of meds might you see a patient with rhinitis place on?Analgesics, Decongestants, Antihistamines, Antitussives, Saline gargle NO ANTIBIOTICS, ANTIVIRALS, OR ANTIBACTERIALS
Your patient has hypertension and rhinitis. What medication if ordered might you question?Antihistamines and decongestants
What would you tell a patient with rhinitis about rest and sleep?adequate rest and sleep is the best prevention of rhinitis
Why would you monitor the patient for vision changes after sinus surgery?may indicate damage to the optic nerve
Your patient has had sinus surgery what would be included in their postop teaching?No blowing nose no lifting>10 lbs Avoid the valsava maneuver (grunt or strain) Avoid smoky environments Remain in warm environment
What can pharyngitis lead to?Endocarditis and rheumatic fever (cardiac and renal complications)
Your patient has had an I&D for a periotonsillar abscess. What post procedure nursing care will you see administered?place in semi fowlers position to prevent aspiration, ice collar to reduce swelling and pain, encourage fluids, observes signs respiratory obstruction or excessive bleeding.
Define aphoniacomplete loss of voice
What is epistaxis and what is the most common cause in children?nosebleed, caused by trauma to the nose in children
What is rhinoplasty?reconstruction of the nose "nose job"
What are nasal polyps?grape-like swellings that arise from nasal mucous membranes, result from chronic irritation R/T infection or allergic rhinitis, they obstruct nasal breathing and sinus drainage, lead to sinusitis.
What is the most important thing to monitor following nasal surgery?bleeding, ask pt to report excessive swallowing which can indicate bleeding.
You have a patient come in that has had some facial trauma with a broken nose. They are having some clear nasal drainage. Why might you see a dextrostix test done on the drainage?to determine presence of glucose, which is diagnostic for cerebrospinal fluid
What are some things that increase the patients risk for sleep apnea?Smoking, Neuromuscular disease, sedatives, hypnotics, heavy alcohol
What is one of the first symptoms of laryngeal cancer?persistent hoarseness
How might the diagnosis of laryngeal cancer be made?laryngoscopy, biopsy, observation of the mobility of the vocal cords, CT, and chest xray
What type of surgery might be done if the cancer has spread beyond the larynx?Radical neck dissection ( removal of the lymph nodes, muscles, and adjacent tissues)
Your patient is a postop tonsillectomy patient. You note that they are swallowing excessively. What might this be a sign of?bleeding at suture site
What position would you place a tonsillectomy patient in to prevent aspiration?Semi Fowlers
What are the 2 major problems for the postop tonsillectomy patient?hemorrhage and respiratory distress
Why might a patient start bleeding as long as 7 days post tonsillectomy?This is when the scabs fall off
What is the difference from a tracheotomy and a tracheostomy?Tracheotomy is the surgical procedure that makes an opening into the trachea Tracheostomy is a surgical opening into the trachea into which a tracheotomy or laryngectomy tube is inserted.
What would be the goal of suctioning?to improve gas exchange in the lungs by removing excessive mucous secretions with a suctioning catheter
Is suctioning of a trach a clean or sterile procedure?Sterile
How long would you apply a suction to a trach patient?No more than 10 seconds
How would you determine the effectiveness of suctioning?Listening to breath sounds before and after suctioning
What are some complications of ET tubes?ulceration and stricture to the trachea or larynx, atelectasis, and pneumonia
Why is a patient on a ventilator at risk for aspiration?absence of cough and swallowing reflexes and the secretions are often thick
What is the body holding onto in Respiratory acidosis?CO2
You have a patient that is consuming baking soda for indigestion. They are at risk for ____?metabolic alkalosis

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