Respiratory System

abnormal sounds superimposed on breath soundsAdventitious
collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygenAtelectasis
visual examination of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi using a rigid or flexible fiber optic bronchoscopeBronchoscopy



acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and accessory sinuses, usually accompanied by edema of the mucus membranes and nasal dischargeCoryza
short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds; most commonly heard upon inspirationCrackles
slightly bluish, gray, or dark purple discoloration of the skin resulting from the presence of abnormally reduced amounts of oxygenated hemoglobin in the bloodCyanosis
shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing; may be caused by disturbances in the lungs, certain heart conditions, and hemoglobin deficiencyDyspnea
obstruction of blood vessel by a foreign substance; blood clot, fat, or airEmbolism
accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural space, as a result of an infectionEmpyema
hemorrhage of the nose; nosebleedEpistaxis
an increase in the severity of a disease or disorder, marked by an increase in signs and symptomsExacerbation
caused by external factorsExtrinsic
greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the bloodHypercapnia
an abnormal condition of the respiratory system that occurs when the volume of air inhaled is not adequate for the metabolic needs of the bodyHypoventilation
an inadequate, reduced tension of cellular oxygenHypoxia
caused by internal factorsIntrinsic
an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand in order to breathe comfortable or deeplyOrthopnea
low pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respirationPleural Friction Rub
collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity which causes the lung to collapsePneumothorax
musical, high pitched, squeaking or whistle like sound caused by rapid movement of air through narrowed bronchiolesSilibant Wheeze
low pitched, loud, coarse, snoring soundSonorous Wheeze
pertaining to respiratory effort that is strenuous and struggling; creates a snoring soundStertorous
an abnormal rapid rate of breathingTachypnea
surgical perforation of the chest wall and pleural space with a needle for the aspiration of fluidThoracentesis
power of microorganism to produce diseaseVirulent
Subjective data in a nursing assessment for a respiratory disorder should includeshortness of breath, dyspnea with or without exertion, cough
Objective data in a nursing assessment for a respiratory disorder should includechest movement, expansion, signs of distress, nostrils flaring, accessory muscle use, retractions, orthopnea, adventitious lung sounds
signs and symptoms of a respiratory disorder includeanxiety, decreased ability to concentrate, disorientation, fatique, vertigo, increased pulse
normal pH range on ABG7.35 to 7.45
normal PaCO2 range on ABG35 to 45
normal PaO2 range on ABG80 to 100
normal HCO3 range on ABG22 to 26
normal Sa02 range on ABG>92%
surgical diagnostic procedure used when a sample of lymph tissue from the chest is needed for biopsymediastinoscopy
endoscopic visualization of the larynx only performed under local or general anesthesialaryngoscopy
endoscopic visualization of the larynx, tranchea, and bronchibronchoscopy
what instructions should a patient be given before an xray?remove jewelry, wear hospital gown
what instructions should a patient be given before collection of a sputum sample?rinse mouth with water, inhale deeply three times, and cough forcefully and spit sample into sterile container
what is the purpose of patient education before a CT scan?to reduce patient anxiety
this diagnostic lab is performed on sputum or pleural fluid to detect the presence of abnormal or malignant cellscytology
this diagnostic procedure is used to determine the severity or progression of a respiratory diseasepulmonary function test
what kind of syringe is used to obtain an ABG sample?heparinized
how large of a sample is needed for an ABG?3 to 5 mL
what test should be performed before an ABG to determine ulnar circulation?Allen’s test
how long should pressure be held following collection of an ABG sample?5 minutes
how should an ABG sample be transported to the lab?in ice water
what procedure should always be performed following a throacentesis?Chest xray
risk for what condition is increased if more than 1500mL of fluid are removed during thoracentesis?Pulmonary Edema
Symptoms of this chronic obstructive pulmonary disease usually appear in the late forties; etiology includes changes in the alveolar walls and capillaries leading to decreased pulmonary surface area and inflammation of the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveolemphysema
signs and symptoms of emphysemaexertional dyspnea, sputum, use of accessory muscles, pursed lip breathing, barrel chest, wheezing, weight loss
diagnostic tests for emphysemaPFT, ABG, chest xray, labs, CBC
medications used to treat emphysemabronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids, diuretics, oxygen therapy, anti anxiety
should patients with COPD be encouraged to drink more or less fluid daily and why?more, to loosen and thin respiratory secretions
because of issues with exertional dyspnea, emphysema patients should rest 30 minutes before these daily activitiesmeals
patient teaching for emphysema should focus onnutrition and smoking cessation
Is COPD reversible?not usually
what is the clinical definition of chronic bronchitis?recurrent productive cough for a minimum of three months for at least two years
etiology of chronic bronchitis includes…impaired cilia, hypersecretion of mucus, susceptibility to infection, chronic infections leading to scarring and airway obstruction
signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitisproductive cough worse in the morning, dyspnea, cyanosis, right ventricle failure, polycythemia, cyanosis, dependent edema
diagnostic tests for chronic bronchitisCBC, ABG, Pulse Oximetry, PFT, Electrolytes
medications used to treat chronic bronchitisbronchodilators, mucolytics, antibiotics
asthma caused by external factors occurring in response to allergens such as pollens, dust spores, feathers, or animal dander, food, etc.extrinsic asthma
asthma stemming from internal causes that are not fully understood, often triggered by URI or emotional upsetsintrinsic asthma
these factors can influence recurrence of asthma attacksmental and physical fatigue
this disease is characterized by increased tracheal and bronchial response to various stimuliasthma
acute asthma attacks are caused by the release of ….histamine
diagnostic tests for asthmaABG, PFT, chest xray, sputum culture, CBC, theophylline level
medications used in the management of asthmabronchodilators, corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors
medications used for acute asthma attackbronchodilators, corticosteroids, epinephrine, IV aminophylline, O2
this manifestation of asthma is fatal if not reversedstatus asthmaticus
a gradual irreversible process of chronic dilation of the bronchi the eventually destroys the elastic and muscular properties of the lungbronchiectasis
signs and symptoms of bronchiectasisdyspnea, weight loss, fever, cyanosis, finger clubbing, coughing, foul smelling sputum
medical management of bronchiectasis includeslow flow O2, chest physiotherapy, hydration, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics
Ringing in earstinnitus
diagnostic tests to consider in relation to epistaxisHGB, HCT, Coag panel, Rhinoscopy
treatments for epistaxispacking with gauze saturated with epi, cautery, ice, direct pressure
causes of deviated septuminjuries, infections, allergies, dyspnea
diagnostic procedures to confirm deviated septumxray, direct observation
treatment for deviated septumsurgery, meds to reduce obstruction
following nasal surgery what should the patient be instructed to avoidnose blowing, coughing vigorously, valsalvas
common complaints associated with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitissneezing, pruritis, congestion, lacrimation, edema, phontophobia, blurred vision
exam findings associated with allergic rhinitisedema, PND, excessive secretions
diagnostic procedures for allergic rhinitisskin test, serum radioallergosorbent test
treatment for allergic rhinitisantihistamines, decongestants
uses for antihistaminesallergies, motion sickness, insomnia, reactions, cough
side effects of antihistamines includeconstipation, dry eyes and mouth, blurred vision, sedation
what are some systemic antihistamines?azatadine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, loratadine
antihistamines should be administered how long before exposure to an allergen?45 to 60 minutes
what are some risks with antihistamines?increase risk of CNS depression, increase the action of anticholinergics, MAOI’s increase action and slow metabolism of antihistamines
what is the mechanism of action of decongestants?they are arteriole vasoconstrictors
what are decongestants used for?to decrease production of respiratory secretions
what are some possible side effects of decongestants?hypertension, dizziness, sedation, headache, tinnitus, thickened secretions, tachycardia, urinary retention
what are the two most common administration routes for decongestants?nasal and oral
what are two nasal decongestants?flonase, afrin
what are two oral decongestants?phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine
what is an important point of patient education with decongestants?don’t use more than three days
what are some common symptoms of laryngeal cancer?hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, “lump in throat”
what are some diagnostic exams for laryngeal cancer?visual exam, CBC, laryngoscopy, biopsy
what are some treatments for laryngeal cancer?radiation, surgery
what is one area of ADL’s that can be severely affected by laryngeal cancer?eating
what are common complaints associated with rhinitis?cough, watery nasal drainage, sore throat
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for rhinitis?visual exam, cultures
what medications are commonly used to treat rhinitis?analgesics, antipyretics, cough suppressants, antibiotics
what are some common complaints with pharyngitis?sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, dry cough
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for pharyngitis?visual exam, culture
what medications are commonly used to treat pharyngitis?antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics
what are some common complaints with adenoiditis?sore throat, dysphagia, fever, malaise, noisy breathing
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for adenoiditis?culture, visual exam(patchy tonsilar exudates)
what are some common treatments for adenoiditis?antibiotics, analgesics, surgery
what are some common complaints with laryngitis?hoarseness, scratchy throat, persistant cough
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for laryngitis?visual exam, laryngoscopy
what are some common treatments for laryngitis?antibiotics, palliative medications
what are some common complaints in sinusitis?headache, sinus pain, tenderness, pressure, and prurulent discharge
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for sinusitis?xray, transillumination
what are some common treatments for sinusitis?surgery, antibiotics, analgesics, antihistamines, vasoconstrictors, warm moist heat
what are some common complaints in tonsilitis?sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, enlarged tonsils with prurulent discharge
what is the most important diagnostic procedure to consider in tonsillitis?culture (especially strep)
what are some common treatments for tonsilitis?surgery, antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics
what are some common complaints in peritonsilar abcess?pain and difficulty swallowing, fever, malaise, ear pain, *****DIFFICULTY TALKING*****
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for peritonsilar abcessvisual exam, culture
what are the treatments for peritonsilar abcess?surgery, antibiotics
what are some common complaints with bronchitis?productive cough, low grade fever, ****rhonchi and wheezes****, dyspnea, chest pain, headache
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for bronchitis?xray, sputum culture
what are the treatments for bronchitis?bronchodilators, andtibiotics, cough suppressants, antipyretics
what are some common complaints in legionanaires’ disease?high fever, headache, nonproductive cough, diarrhea, malaise
what are some signs and sypmtoms of advancing legionnaires’ disease?tachypnea, crackles and wheezing, shock, hematuria and renal failure
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for legionnaires’ disease?cultures, xray
what are the treatments for legionairres’ disease?antibiotics, rifampin, anatipyretics, vasopressors and inotropes
what type of environment does legionnaires’ usually live in?moist (air conditioners, hot tubs, steam rooms)
what is the most lethal type of anthrax?inhalational
what are the three types of anthrax?cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation
what are the treatments for anthrax?antibiotics (ciprofloxacin); previous vaccination increases survival rate
through what route is tuberculosis transmitted?inhalation
a positive PPD with negative chest xray indicates what?inactive tuberculosis infection
what is a common factor in the conversion from inactive to active TB infection?immunosuppression
what type of room should a patient with TB be in?negative pressure
what are the treatments for TB?isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, rifapentine
what is an important point of patient education for rifambin?turns body fluids red
what common substance has a known drug interaction with isoniazid?alcohol
what are some common causes of pneumonia?bacteria, aspiration, viral, fungal chemical
what are diagnostic tests appropriate for pneumonia?cultures, xray, cbc, pft, abg
what are some treatments for pneumonia?antibiotics, O2, analgesics, antipyretics, expectorants, bronchodilators, physiotherapy, humidification
what are some factors that make older adults more susceptible to pneumonia?drier mucous membranes, kyphosis, muscle weakness, reduced airway elasticity, inactivity, immobility
what is the action of an antitussive?suppresses cough reflex
what is the action of an expectorant?reduces viscosity of respiratory secretions
inflammation of visceral and parietal pleurapleurisy
what are some symptoms of pleurisy?pain on inspiration, fever, dry cough, dyspnea
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for pleurisy?xray, auscultation(pleural friction rub)
Empyema is another word forpleural effusion
how is pleural effusion treated?thoracentesis, chest tube
collapse of lung tissueatelectasis
what are some causes of atelectasis?shallow breathing, copious secretions, aspiration, hypoventilation, tumors
what are some diagnostic tests for atelectasis?xray, ABG, Bronchoscopy
what are some treatments for atalectasis?chest tube, deep breathing and coughing, intubation
edema of respiratory mucosa combined with excessive mucous production causing chronic airway obstructionasthma
drugs that produce bronchodilation by mimicking the effects of the sympathetic nervous systemadrenergics
what are some commonly used bronchodilators?albuterol, salmeterol, terbutaline
drugs that reduce symptoms of asthma by reducing inflammation in the airwayscorticosteriods
beclomethasone, flunilolide, and triamcinolone are all examples ofcorticosteroids
these two antiasthmatic classes reduce the release of substances that can lead to bronchospasmleukotriene receptor antagonists and mast cell stabilizers
common side effects of antiasthmaticstremors, anxiety, throat irritation
when administering both a sympathomimetic and corticosteroid inhaler, what is the proper sequence?sypathomimetic (bronchodilator) first, then wait five minutes and administer corticosteroid
what is the minimum waiting time between aerosol inhaler administrations?1 minute
you should wait three to five minutes between administrations of these two inhaled medicationsisoproternol and epinephrine
you should wait at least ten minutes after the administration of this inhaler before giving anothermetaproternol
this class of antiasthmatic is commonly used as a daily therapy for long term asthma managementleukotriene antagonists
what are some examples of adrenergic bronchodilators?albuterol, epinephrine, salmeterol, terbutaline
what time of day should once daily doses of xanthines be administered?morning
air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapsepneumothorax
buildup of air in the pleural space, causing interference with the ability of the heart and lungs to filltension pneumothorax
signs and symptoms of pneumothoraxdecreased or absent breath sounds, abnormal chest movement
diagnostic tests appropriate for pneumothoraxxray, abg
most common type of lung cancernon
accumulation of serous fluid in interstitial lung tissue and alveolipulmonary edema
hallmark symptom of pulmonary edemapink, frothy sputum
non cardiogenic pulmonary edemaARDS
flow setting for nasal cannula in a COPD patient2 to 3 LPM

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