Analgesic Drugs

What is acute pain?pain that is sudden onset, subsides when treated, occurs over less than a 6 week period
What is addiction?a primary, chronic, neurobilogic disease whose development is influenced by genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factos



What is adjuvant analgesic drug?drug that are added as a second drug for combined therapy with a priary drug and may have additive or independent analgesic properties
What is agonist?a substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response
What is agonists antagonists?substances that bind to a receptor and cause a partial response that is not as strong as that caused by an agonist
What is analgesic ceiling effect?what occurs when a given pain drug no longer effectively controls a pt's pain despite the administration of the highest safe dosages
What is analgesics?medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness
What are antagonists?a drug that binds to a receptor and prevents a response
What is breakthrough pain?pain the occurs between doses of pain medication
What is cancer pain?pain resulting from any disorder that causes CNS damage
What is chronic pain?persistent or recurring pain that is often difficult to treat. includes any pain lasting longer than 3-6 months, pain lasing longer than 1 month after healing of an acute tissue injury, or pain that accompanies a nonhealing tissue injury
What is deep pain?pain that occurs is tissues below skin level
What is gate theory?the most common theroy of pain trasmission and pain relief. explains how impulses from damages tissues are sensed in the brain
What are narcotics?a legal term esablished under the harriosn narcotic act. it used to apply to drugs that produce insensibility or stupor
What is neuropathic pain?pain that results from a disturbance of function or pathollogic change in a nerve
What is nociception?processing of pain signals in the brain that gives rise to the feeling of pain
What are nociceptors?a subclass of sensory nerves that transmit pain signals to the CNS from other body parts
What are nonopioid analgesics?analgesics that are not classified as opioids
What are NSAIDS?a large chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesics and also posess antiinflammaory and intopyretic activity but are not steroids
What are opioid analgesics?synthetic drugs that bind to opiate receptos to relieve pain but are not themselves derived from the opium plant
What are opioid naive?describes pts who are reveiving opioid analgesics for the frist time, not accustomed to their effects
What is opioid tolerance?a normal physiologic condition that results from long term opioid use, where larger doses are required to maintaim the same level of analgesia and where abruptly stopping causes withdrawal
What is opioid tolerant?the opposite of opioid naive, describes pt's who have been receiving opoid analgecis for a period of time and who are therefore at greater risk of opioid withdrawal syndrome after stopping
What is opioid withdrawal?the S&S associated with abstinence from or weithdrawl of an opioid analgesic when the body has become physically dependent on the substance
What is pain?an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
What is pain threshold?a level of a stimulus that results in the sensation of pain
What is pain tolerance?the amount of pain a pt can endure without its interfering with normal function
What is partial agonist?a drug that binds to a receptor and causes an activation response that is less than that caused by a full agonist
What is phantom pain?pain experienced in the area of a body part that has been surgically removed
What is physical dependence?a state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class-specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug.
What is psychologic dependence?a pattern of compulsive use of opioids or any other addictive substance characterized by a continuous craving for the substance and the need to use it for effects other than pain relief
What is referred pain?pain occuring in an area away from the organ of orgin
What is somatic pain?Pain that originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints
What is special pain situations?the term for pain control situations that are complex and whose treatment typically involves multiple medications, various health care personnel, and nonpharmacologic therapeutic medalities
What is superficial pain?pain that originated from the skin or mucous membranes. opposite of deep pain
What is synergistic effects?drug interactions in which the effect of a conbination of 2 or more durngs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone
What is tolerance?a state of adaptation in which repetitive exposure to a given drug, over time, induces changes in drug receptors that reduce on or more of the drug's effects
What is vascular pain?pain that results from a pathology of the vascular or perivascular tissues
What is visceral pain?pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles
What is world health organization?an international body of health care professionals, including clinicians and epidemiologist amount many other, that studies and responds to health needs and trends worldwide
What is morphine sulfate?morphine, derived from the opium poppy, schedule 2, for severe pain, high abuse potential, ER forms are contin, kadian, and avinza
What is Narcan?pure opioid antagonist because is possesses no agonistic morphine like properties and works as a blocking drug to the opoid drugs
What is tylenol?nonopioid analgesic for mild or moderate pain, no anemic, renal or hapatic disease
opioids should not be used with?alcohol or other CNS depressants, because of depressing effects
Opioids may result in?constipation
What are 3 nonopioids?tylenol, asprin, NSAIDS
What are opioids/?natural or synthetic drugs, morphine
For elderly that best rule is to?start with low dosages, reevaluate often, and go slowly during upward titration
For best results when treating severse pain associated with pathologic spinal fractures related to metastic bone cancer, the nurse should remembe rthe the best type of dosage schedule is to administer the pain med?around the clock, with additional doses as needed for breakthrough pain
A pt is receiving an opioid via a PCA pump as part of his postoperative pain management program, during rounds, the nurse finds him unresponsive, with respiration of 8, and BP 102/58, After stopping opioid infusion, what should the nurse do next?Administer an opiat antagonist per standing orders
A pt with bone pain caused by cancer will be receiving transdermal fentanyl patches, the pt asks the nurse what benefits these patches have, the nurses best responce includes which of the following?More analgesia for longer time period
The nurse suspects that a pt is showing signs of respiratory depression, which drug could be the cause of this complication?Dilaudid
Several pt have standard orders for tylenol as needed for pain, when the nurse reviews their hx and assessments, the nurse discovers that one of the pt has a contraindication to tylenol therapy, which pt is the one who should receive alternate meds?a pt with severe hepatitis.

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