Cardiovascular Pharmacology

When clinical signs of volume overload exists, these drugs are used to increase urinary output, decrease blood volume, preload, and cardiac workload.Diuretics
Three types of diuretics used to decrease blood volume and lower blood pressure.Loop Diuretics, Thiazides, and Potassium-sparing



These diuretics depress Na reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle and promote potassium excretion.Loop Diuretics
furosemide (Lasix); bumetanide (Bumex); toresemide (Demadex)Class: Diuretics; loop diuretics
Diuretics: Prevent Na and water reabsorption in the distal tubules while promoting potassium excretion.Thiazide
hydrochlorothazide (HCTZ)Class: antihypertensive, diuretic; thiazide diuretic
Inhibits aldosterone, causing Na to be excreted in the distal tubule, but sparing potassium.Potassium-sparing diuretic
Spironolactone(Aldactone)Class; diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics
Labs to monitor during Diuretic therapyBUN, creatinine, electrolyets, potassium levels, glucose, uric acid levels, hypotension,
Thiazide diuretics are contraindicated in clients with?Renal failure. Cumulative effects of the thiazide may develop in patients with impaired renal function. In such patients, thiazides may precipitate azotemia (increased urea).
Block epinephrine from interacting with beta receptor sites.Beta Blockers
Selective beta blockersLower b/p by blocking beta receptors in the heart and peripheral vessels, reducing heart rate, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output.
acebutolol (Sectral); atenolol (Tenormin); betaxolol (Kerlone); bisoprolol (Zebeta); esmolol (Brevibloc); metoprolol (Lopressor and Torprol-XL)Cardioselective beta-blockers
Nonselective beta-blockersblock beta2-adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle of the bronchioles and blood vessels. Does not only work specially on the heart.
nadolol (Corgard); propranolol (Inderal); timolol (Blocadren)Nonselective beta-blockers
Sudden stop of beta-blockers administration can lead to whatHTN crisis
before taking beta-blockers med the nurse should assess the ______ which must be over ______ before giving to patientapical pulse rate; 50bpm
iontropedecreases mycardial contractility
chonotropedecrease heart rate
Block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body, thereby decreasing b/p.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (Ace-inhibitors)
Ace Inhibitors also blocks the release of what to reduce Na and water retension.aldosterone.
benazepril (Lotensin); captopril (Capoten); enalapril/enalaprilat (Vasotec, Vasotec IV), fosinopril (Monopril), lisinopril (Prinvil, Zestril); moexipril (Univasc); perindopril (Aceon); quinapril (Accupril); ramipril (Altace); trandolapril (Mavik)Class: antihypertensive; ACE inhibitors.
Cardio drugs that cause severe dry coughAce inhibitors
lab tests considerations for Ace inhibitorsBUN, creatinine, electrolytes, serum potassium, CBC, AST, ALT.

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