Pain Management Term- Anesthesia II

RO1oldest type of research grant that NIH offers; specifically for health related projects; $25,000 - $250,000
RO3grant for pilot study or smaller projects; $25,000 - $50,000.
David Sackettcoined the term evidence based medicine; out of that term developed the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine.



Archie Cochranepidemiologist from Scottand; wrote "Effectiveness and Efficiency"; argued that it was unethical to base medical decisions on anything intangible.
CFDA(Catalog Federal Domestic Assistance) source that describes how to apply for research grants. (government)
Federal Registersource that shows all available grants (government)
What is the largest sources of federal funding?NIH (National Institute of Health) and NSF (National Science Foundation)
What are the 3 components of evidence based practice? (triad)1)research, 2)client, 3) practitioner
What is the purpose of EBP?to make decision
What is PICOT?acronym that gives the 4 components needed for a clear, concise question: population, intervention, comparison, outcome, time frame
What is Institutional Research Fund?college grants for research; $1000 - $5000.
501(c)3 statusone of the benefits for nonprofit charities, makes exempt from paying income tax
mesh headings?helpful tool on PubMed that allows you to look up a certain word to see what words they tie that to in their database.
Cochran Librarysingle most reliable source of the effects of health care; gold standard for EBM; latest medical txs, expert reviews, systematic reviews.
Scientific Hierarchy of Evidence (Pyramid)strongest to weakest: systematic reviews and meta analysis; randomized controlled double blind studies, cohort studies, case series, case reports, ideas editorials opinions, animal research, in vitro test tube research.
What is the strongest type of evidence?systematic review and meta analysis
What does a "blind study" remove?bias
What is systematic review?when an author does a full search of the databases and tries to get all the studies that looked at the specific patient problem
What is meta analysis?apply statistical analysis to systematic; is a quantitative approach; provides a better estimate of how much a variable affects a situation
Oxford Centerone model for ranking system (uses numbers and letters): 1-5 with A-C; Highest level is 1A and 5 is the lowest.;; (another model for ranking system is American Academy for Family Physicians)
In order to use EBP what other process must you first understand?the research process
How is research utilization different from EBP?research utilization looks at ONE study to decide whether or not it has implications, EBP looks at ALL evidence and integrates with pt values and expertise of clinician (research utilization is part of EBP)
What is the first step in the evidence based practice process?identify a problem and formulate a question
Acronym used to develop a question?PICOT
Who are the 2 gentlemen credited for beginning the EBP movement?Sackett and Cochrane
EBP may include practice based on expert opinion?true
hypothesispredicts a relationship between a dependent and independent variable; for quantitative studies; must contain terms that indicate the relationship.
boolean operatordefine relationships between words or groups of words: AND, OR, NOT
nominaldata categorized but no data or order (i.e gender)
ordinalcategories with order but intervals not necessarily equal and no zero (i.e. pain)
intervalequal intervals but no true zero (i.e. temperature scales)
ratioequal intervals with a true zero (i.e. wt, volume, length)
invitrotesting not performed in a living organism i.e in test tube
invivotesting done on a hole living organism (animals)
public foundationgets money from multiple sources including the gov't
private foundationget donations usually from ONE source (AANA)
What act passed as a result of Nancy Cruzan's death?Patient self determination act of 1990.
What hospital committee was created as a result of Karen Quinlan's death?hospital ethics committee
What governs the IRB?code of federal regulations
What was created as a result of the Tuskeegee experiement?Belmont Report, OHRP (office for human research protection), and IRB (internal review boards
What are normative or prescriptive ethics concerned with?what people SHOULD believe (golden rule)
What are non-normative or descriptive ethics concerned with?scientific study of moral beliefs and practices.
What is axiology?philosophical study of morality or values.
What is morality?aceptable behavior within a group or society
What is teleology?based on consequences of actions
What is deontology?based on duty.
How are ethics enforced?ethics committees and professional organizations (AANA)
Who is Edward Jenner known as?father of immunology - invented smallpox vaccine
Who is Moses Maimonides?jewish philosopher and physician for the Sultan. Displayed what would now be called “intercultural awareness and respect for patient’s autonomy.”
Who is Claude Bernard?French surgeon who came up with the notion of “blind” experiments, the term “homeostasis”, and the scientific method.
Who does the IRB protect?human subjects, researcher, institution,
What is the "common rule"?research (systematic), generalizability (intent), human subject (identifiers)
What groups make up the vunerable population?very young, frail elderly, pregnant, children, prisoners, mentally incompetent, poor, uneducated.
What are the 3 review categories of the IRB?nonexempt, exempt, expedited
What is an example of exempt review?1)educational - testing 2) the collection of existing data - specimens, documents
What is an example of expidited review?1) voice, video, digital, image recordings 2) focus groups 3) materials collected for non-research purposes.
Can expidited review be used for continuing review? (no greater than minimal risk review)yes (if previously reviewed by full-board) and 1) research is closed to enrollment 2) subjects have completed remaining research activities 3) remaining research is for data analysis only
Does HIPPA regulate research?no
How does HIPPA impact research?permits access of "protected health information"
A healthcare provider has a right to access a patient's PHI for research purposes?false
What are the essential components of a problem statement?population and variable(s) to be studied
What is considered the foundation of a research study?problem statement
What's included in the research problem?background, feasibility, supporting literature
What does the statement of purpose in quantitative studies identify?variables, relationship among variables, population, nature of the inquiry (to test, to compare, to evaluate)
Research questions can be used to clarify the statement of purpose?True
Grounded theory, phenomenolgy , and ethnography are examples of what kind of research?qualitative
Hypothesis are disadvantageous for what type of studies?qualitative
What is H1 or Ha known as?research hypothesis
What is Ho known as?statistical hypothesis or null hypothesis
The null hypothesis is the .............of a relationship, whereas, the research hypothesis is the ................ of a relationship.absence, prediction
What is a type 1 error?the rejection of a true null hypothesis (or incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis), leading to a false positive.
What is a type 2 error?the retention of a false null hypothesis (or incorrectly keeping the null hypothesis), leading to a false negative.
A dependent variable is the cause or outcome of the independent variable?True
What type of variable takes on a large range of values?continuous
What type of variable takes on a small range of values and are usually whole numbers?discrete
What is an example of a categorical variable?ethnicity
What is an example of a dichotomous variable?gender (only 2 categories possible)
Extraneous or confounding variable can affect a research study?True (therefore need to control them)
Variables must be operational to be tested?true
Pearson correlation works best for what type of data?interval

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