NCLEX RN -Signs and Symptoms of Diseases

Acute Resp Distress SyndromeAssessment: hypoxia, sternal and costal retractions, presence of rales or rhonchi, diminished breath sounds, refractory hypxemia
Pulmonary emboluschest pain, dyspnea, syncope, hemptysis, tachycardia, hypotension, apprehension, petechiae on chest and axsilla, distened neck veins
Pneumoniahypoxia, tachypnea, tachycardia, CP, malaise, fever, confusion



pleurisysharp pain on inspiration, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea
Acute glomerulonephritisDark, smoke colored urine, hypotension, headache, n/v, oliguria
Chronic glomerulonephritisProteinuria, pedal edema, weight loss, nocturia, GI complaints, anemia, peripheral neuropathy, gout, hypertension, increased creatinine, increased BUN, normal or below normal urine specific gravity
PeritonitisFever, abd discomfort, return of cloudy dialysate
Nephritic SyndromeMarked proteinuria, generalized edema, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia
Urinary CalculiFlank pain, fever, n/v, urinary output changes
UTIPain/burning on urination, urinary frequency and urgency, flank pain, fever, n/v
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia↑ freq of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy in starting, ↓ volume and force of urinary system, bladder fullness, recurrent UTIs
Anemia↑ RBC destruction, blood loss, poor dietary iron intake, poor absorption, parasites
Pernicious AnemiaPallor, jaundice, smooth, beefy red tongue, fatigue, weight loss, Paresthesia, ↓vibratory and position senses, ataxia
Aplastic Anemia↓ Erythrocytes, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Sickle Cell Anemia TxHHOP
Iron Deficiency Anemias/s are same as general anemia however if severe s/s also includes: brittle nails, corner of mouth ulcers, sore tongue
HemophiliaBleed and bruise easily, hemorrhaging from minor cuts, joint hemorrhages, post-op hemorrhaging, internal bleeding, intracranial bleeding hemarthrosis
Polycythemia VeraEnlarged spleen, dizziness, tinnitus, fatigue, Paresthesia, dyspnea, pruritis, burning sensation in fingers and toes
Duodenal Ulcerepigastric pain 2-3 hours after meals, pain that is relieved by food intake, melena
Gastric Ulcermidepigastric pain occurring from ½ to 1 hour after meals, discomfort that is increased by food consumption, vomiting (common to relieve some pain)
Dumping Syndromedizziness, pallor, n/v, palpations
Cataractsblurred, hazy vision, glare from bright lights, yellow, white, or gray discoloration of the pupil, gradual loss of vision
Glaucomatired eyes, diminished peripheral vision, seeing halos around lights, hardening of the eyeball, IIP
Crohn’s Diseaseabd pain, diarrhea, cramping weight loss, anemia, ulcer formation
Diverticulitisbowel irregularity, intervals of diarrhea, cramping pain in the left lower quad of and, low
Hepatitis AMalaise, fever, jaundice, n/v
Hepatitis Bmalaise, fever, rash, jaundice, arthritis, abd pain, nausea
Hepatitis Clacks symptoms and vagueness but also fever, rash, jaundice, arthritis, abd pain, nausea, malaise
Prodromal StageFatigue, malaise, anorexia, n/v, fever, dark urine, clay
Icteric statejaundice, pruritis, tenderness in the RUQ, hepatomegaly, elevated liver enzymes
Cirrhosisjaundice, spleenomegaly and hepatomegaly, chronic indigestion, constipation or diarrhea, weight loss, ascites, edema, Vit A, D, E, K deficiencies, changes in behavior, cognition, and speech, elevations in lever enzymes, BUN, and ammonia levels
Pancreatitisepigastic pain radiating to back, n/v, abd distention, elevated blood and urine glucose levels, elevated serum lipase and amylase levels, decreased serum calcium levels, elevated WBCs, steatorrheaCholecystitis
Compartment Syndromecyanosis, numbness, pain unrelieved by meds, pallor, paresis/paralysis, swelling, tingling
Osteomyelitisfever, malaise, swelling, tenderness, purulent drainage, and pain in infected area
Osteoporosisback pain, constipation, decrease in height, dowager’s hump, fractures
Goutpainful joints and tophi (urate crystal growths)
Rheumatoid Arthritissubcutaneous nodules on ulnar surface of arm, warmth, tenderness, and swelling in affected joints
Pituitary Gland Tumordiminished vision due to pressure on the optic chiasm, headache and feeling of fullness in the head, amenorrhea, sterility, increased growth plates, skeletal thickness, hypertrophy of the skin, enlargement of visceral organs like the heart and liver
Hypothyroidismfatigue, lethargy, ↓ body temp, ↓ pulse rate, ↓ BP, weight gain, edema of hands and feet, hair loss, thickening of skin
Hyperthyroidism↑ HR, ↑ BP, tremors, nervousness, moist skin and sweating, ↑ activity, insomnia, atrial fib, ↑ appetite and weight loss, exopthalmos
Hypoparathyroidism↓ calcium, ↑ phosphorus, neuro hyperexcitability, carpopedal spasms, urinary freq, mood changes (depression), dry, scaly skin, and think hair, cataracts, changes in teeth (cavities), seizures, changes in EKG (prolonged QT intervals and inverted T waves)
Hyperparathyroidism↓ blood phosphorus, ↑ blood calcium, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, bone pain and pathological fractures, ↑ urinary output and calcium renal calculi, n/v, changes in EKG (shortened QT interval and signs of heart block)
Addison’s Diseaseweakness, bronze-like pigmentation of skin, ↓ glucose levels, ↓ blood pressure, anorexia, sparse axillary hair, urinary freq, depression, addisonian crisis
Cushing’s SyndromePendulous abd, buffalo hump, moor facies, hirsutism (facial hair), ruddy complexion, ↑ BP, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, ↓ serum potassium and chloride, ↑ 17
Diabetes Mellitusweight loss, ketonuria, polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, delayed wound healing, and ↑ blood glucose
Hyperglycemiaheadache, n/v, coma, flushed, dry skin, glucose and acetone in urine
Hypoglycemiaheadache, irritability, disorientation, n/v, diaphoresis, pallor, weakness, convulsions, coma, death
Hypertension140/90 and over, early morning headache, fatigue
Digoxin Toxicityn/v, seeing halos around lights
Myocardial Infarctionsubsternal pain or pain for greater than 15 mins, pain described as heavy, vise-like, radiating down left arm to jaw and neck; begins spontaneously &not relieved by nitroglycerin; SOB, pallor, diaphoresis, dizziness, n/v, ↑ HR, ↓ BP, ↑ temp, ↑ R
V-Fibfaint, loses consciousness, pulseless, hypotensive or lack of BP
Pulmonary Edemafrothy, pink- tinged sputum, SOB, orthopnea, distended jugular veins
Causes of seizures:abrupt withdrawal of barbiturates, brain tumors, CNS infections, head injuries, high fevers, HTN, hypoglycemia
Epidural hematomalucid to consciousness followed by being critical and then comatose
IICPblurred vision, changes in cognition, changes in LOC, cheyne stokes resps, coma, DECEREBRATE posture, ↓motor responsiveness, Diplopia, doll’s eye, headache, n/v, pupil changes, personality and behavior changes, seizures, widen pulse pressure, ↓HR, R
IICP in an Infantbulging fontanels, high pitched crying, irritability, restlessness
Spinal cord injuriesacute resp failure, compromised resp function, loss of bowel and bladder tone, loss of sweating and vasomotor tone, marked reduction of BP due to loss of peripheral vascular resistance, sensory and motor paralysis

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