NCLEX Nutrition

Carbsused first for energy production in starvation; only source of energy production for the brain
Fatssecond source of energy production used by the body in starvation; waste products are ketone bodies that can create an acidic environ in the blood



Proteinslast energy source used in starvation; depletion leads to muscle wasting, loss of oncotic pressure in the vascular space; low albumin indicates protein malnutrition
Vitaminsorganic substance in foods; essential in small quantities for growth and transformation of food substances into tissue; three types= fat soluble, water soluble, minerals
Vitamin A Functions and Sourcesvisual acuity; beta carotene, liver, egg yolk, cream, milk, yellow fruits, orange and green leafy veggies like carrots, butter, cheese
Vitamin A Deficiency and ToxicityD= night blindness, skin infection, xerophthalmia, corneal ulceration; T= CNS changes; GI like portal HTN
Vitamin D Functions and SourcesBone calcification, Ca+2 and phosphorus absorption; fish oils, fortified milk/diary products, egg yolks, sunlight’s irradiation of body cholesterol
Vitamin D Deficiency and ToxicityD: rickets, poor bone growth; T: hypercalcemia, renal calculi
Vitamin E Functions and Sourcesantioxidant and growth; green leaf veggies, fats, oils, liver, grains, nuts
Vitamin E Deficiency and ToxicityD: RBC breakdown, hemolytic anemia; T: fatigue, headache, blurred vision, diarrhea
Vitamin K Functions and Sourcesblood clotting; leafy veggies, eggs, cheese, synthesized by intestinal bacteria
Vitamin K Deficiency and ToxicityD: bleeding, bruises; T: anemia, liver/renal damage, intestinal bacterial infection
Thiamine Functions and SourcesB1= normal growth, carb metabolism; legumes, meat, enriched grains, eggs, fish
Thiamine Deficiency and ToxicityD: beriberi (numbness, decreased reflexes fatigue, wernicke-korsakoff syndrome; T: shock
Riboflavin Functions and SourcesB2= coenzyme in protein and energy metabolism; milk and liver
Riboflavin Deficiency and ToxicityD: ariboflainosis, tissue inflammation
Niacin Functions and Sourcesnicotinic acid= normal growth; meat, grains
Niacin Deficiency and ToxicityD: pellagra (rough, scaly skin, glossitis, decreased wt); T: vasodilation, flushing
Pyridoxine Functions and SourcesB6= amino acid metabolism; corn, soy, meat, liver, yeast, egg yolk, sunflowers
Pyridoxine Deficiency and ToxicityD: anemia, CNS changes, peripheral neuropathy; T: diminished proprioceptive sensory function
Folic Acid Functions and SourcesRBC formation; liver, oranges, broccoli
Folic Acid Deficiency and ToxicityD: anemia; T: diminished proprioceptive sensory function
Cyanocobalamin Functions and SourcesB12= nerve formation, RBC formation; meat, milk, eggs
Cyanocobalamin Deficiency and ToxicityD: pernicious anemia
Ascorbic Acid Functions and Sourcesvit C= collagen synthesis; citrus fruits, veggies, tomatoes
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency and ToxicityD: scurvy (joint pain and weakness), anemia; T: oxalate hypersensitivity
Calcium Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sxbone formation, muscle contraction, thrombus formation; milk, green leafy veggies, eggs; rickets, porous bones, tetany
Phosphorus Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sxbone formation, cell permeability; milk, eggs, nuts; rickets
Fluoride Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sxdental health; water supply; dental caries
Iodine Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sxthyroid hormone synthesis; seafood, iodized salt; goiter
Sodium Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sxosmotic pressure, acid base balance, nerve irritability; table salt, canned veggies, milk, cured meats, processed foods; fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Potassium Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sxwater balance in cells, protein synthesis, heart contractility; grains, meats, veggies, arrhythmias, fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Iron Functions, Sources, and Deficiency SxHgb synthesis; liver, oysters, leafy veggies, apricots; anemia, lethargy
Vegan Dietfruits, veggies, nuts, beans, seeds; NO animal protein, fortified foods, and nutritional supplements of animal origin
Lactovegetarian dietvegan diet AND milk, cheese, yogurt and other milk products as only source of animal protein
Ovovegetarian dietvegan diet AND eggs as the only source of animal protein
Lactoovovegetarian dietVegan diet AND Lactovegetarian AND Ovovegetarian
Clear Liquid Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed itemsgelatin, popsicle, tea with lemon, ginger ale, bouillon, fruit juice without pulp/NO pulp or milk
Clear Liquid Diet Purpose and Common medical dxto maintain fluid balance/postop, acute v/d
Low Fat, Cholesterol Restricted Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed itemsfruit, veggies, cereals, lean meat/NO marbled meat, avocados, milk, bacon, egg yolks, butter
Low Fat, Cholesterol Restricted Diet Purpose and Common medical dxto reduce cal from fat and minimize cholesterol intake/atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis
Sodium Restricted Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed itemscold baked chx, lettuce tomatoes, applesauce/NO preserved meats, cheese, fried foods, milk products, canned foods, added salt
Sodium Restricted Diet Purpose and Common medical dxto lower body h20 and promote excretion/HF, HTN, cirrhosis
High Roughage, High Fiber Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed itemswheat bread, minestrone, apple, brussel sprouts/NO white bread, pies, cakes, white flour, “white” processed foods
High Roughage, High Fiber Diet Purpose and Common medical dxto maximize bulk in stool/constipation, large bowel disorders
High Protein Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items30g powdered skim milk and 1 egg in 100 ml h20 OR roast beef sandwich with skim milk/NO soft drinks, “junk” food
High Protein Diet Purpose and Common medical dxto re-establish anabolism to raise albumin levels/burns, infection, hyperthyroidism
Renal Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed itemsunsalted veggies, white rice, canned fruits, sweets/NO beans, cereals, citrus fruits
Renal Diet Sample Purpose and Common medical dxto keep protein, potassium, and sodium low/chronic renal failure

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