Motivational techniques

Managers have found that job performance and satisfaction can be improved by properly administered rewards. Rewards may be defined as material or psychological payoffs for the accomplishment of tasks. Rewards can be broadly categorized into extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards are pay-offs granted by others. They include money, perks and amenities, promotion, recognition, status symbols, and praise. Intrinsic (job content) rewards are self-granted and internally experienced pay-offs. Individuals prefer intrinsic rewards such as satisfaction from performing challenging and interesting jobs. The motivation theories discussed in this chapter throw light on the role of the extrinsic and intrinsic rewards in improving productivity, and offer constructive suggestions about how to use these rewards in organization settings.

Motivation theories encourage the use of the participation techniques. The right kind of participation ensures an increase in the motivation and knowledge levels which contribute to the success of an enterprise. Participation allows an individual to satisfy his or her need for esteem (from self and from others). It gratifies the need for affiliation and acceptance. Above all, it gives people a sense of accomplishment and a chance for advancement. MBO (discussed in Chapter 5) is the most popular and modern method of motivating employees at all levels for better performance, since it ensures participation and freedom in setting goals and achieving them.

Quality of Work Life (QWL)
One of the most interesting approaches to motivation is the quality of work life (QWL) program. QWL is not only a very broad approach to job enrichment but also an interdisciplinary field of inquiry and action. It is a combination of several fields which include industrial and organization psychology and sociology, industrial engineering, organization theory and development, motivation and leadership theory, and industrial relations. Managers see this concept as a promising means of dealing with productivity problems and workers’ grievances.

Job Enrichment
A modern and more permanent approach to motivation is job enrichment. Here, the attempt is to build a higher sense of challenge and achievement in jobs. A job may be enriched in the following ways:
1. Allowing workers to make independent decisions on issues like work methods, sequence and pace or the acceptance or rejection of materials;
2. Encouraging involvement and participation of employees and interaction between workers;
3. Making workers feel personally responsible for their tasks;
4. Ensuring that workers get to know how their tasks contribute to the finished product and the welfare of the enterprise;
5. Giving people feedback on their job performance; and
6. Involving workers when bringing about changes in the physical aspects of their work

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