Valence is the motivational component that refers to the preference of an individual for a particular outcome. In simple words, it signifies ‘how much reward one wants.’ The valence component helps an individual assess the anticipated value of various outcomes. If the possible reward or outcome of the work is of interest to the individual performing it, the valence component will be high.

Expectancy is the probability that certain efforts will lead to the required performance. In other words, expectancy is the probability (ranging from 0 to 1) that a particular action or effort will lead to a particular outcome. For an individual to exert efforts towards a goal, he must see a non-zero probability of effort leading to that goal. In other words, all individuals will be motivated to reach their goal only when they see some connection between their effort and performance.

This refers to the probability that successful performance will lead to certain outcomes. The major outcomes we consider are the potential rewards such as incentives or bonuses, or a good feeling of accomplishment.

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