Definitions and meaning of motivation

According to Stephen P. Robbins, motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
Fred Luthans views motivation as “a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.”
The three key elements in the above definitions are needs, drives and goals. Needs set up drives aimed at goals; this is the basic process of motivation. Need is the origin of any motivated behavior. Need is a felt deprivation of physiological or psychological well-being. Needs exist in each individual in varying degrees. When an individual recognizes a need, he is driven by a desire to fulfill the need. Drives are directed at fulfillment of needs. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward reaching a goal. Incentives or goals are the instruments used to induce people to follow a desired course of action. Once the goal is attained, the physiological or psychological balance is restored and the drive is cut off.

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