Pharmacology Quiz #1

True/False: The reaction to pain is a subjective experienceTRUE
What is substance P?The neurotransmitter for pain
Definition: medications used to relieve painAnalgesics



What are the 2 most important receptors in pain management?Mu + Kappa
What are the drugs of choice for moderate to severe pain?Opioids
How are Opioids classified?Effectiveness
What 2 categories are opiates placed in?strong + moderate
Definition: the standard against which the effectiveness of every other opioid is comparedrepresentative drug
What opioid agonist is the representative drug used to treat severe pain?morphine
Drug action: suppress cough, slow GI motility, sedation, euphoriaMorphine
What is the most dangerous side effect of Opioid Agonists?respiratory depression
Codeine, Oxycodone, Propoxyphene are all common opioid agonists with _________ effectivenessmoderate
Demerol, Dilaudid and Duramorph are all common opioid agonists with ___________ effectivenesshigh
What 2 classes of drugs work synergistically to relieve pain?opioids + non-narcotic analgesics
What non-narcotic analgesic is used the most in combination with an opioid?acetaminophen (Tylenol)
What do Vicodin, Percocet and Darvocet all have in common?combinations with acetaminophen
Definition: substances that prevent the effects of opioid agonistsopioid antagonists
What analgesic category is used to treat an opioid overdose or respiratory depression?Opioid Antagonist
Naloxone (Narcan) is an opioid_________.antagonist
What is the drug of choice in an acute opioid overdose?Narcan
What is important to remember when reversing the effects of opioids?patient may experience rapid loss of analgesia and feel pain
__________ inhibit cyclooxygenase.NSAIDs
cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that inhibits ___________.prostaglandins
What is the drug of choice for mild-moderate pain?NSAIDS
A high dose of NSAIDS can increase the risk of what?heart attack + stroke
What is an adverse effect of NSAIDS?GI bleeding/irritation
What is a side effect of Celebrex?Heart Attack
Celecoxib (Celebrex)selective COX-2 inhibitor
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and Naproxen Sodium (Aleve)Non Selective
Why were many of the COX-2 inhibitors removed from the market?Cardiovascular reasons
What is the most common analgesic used for relief of slight-moderate pain?Aspirin
__________ inhibit platelet aggregation.Aspirin
What is a side effect of Aspirin?GI bleeding
True/False: Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is an anti-inflammatory agent.False: anti-pyretic
What is the maximum Tylenol dosage in a day?4 grams
What is the most common kind of headache?tension headache
What is one of the most common complaints of patients?Headache
What is the most painful type of headache?migraine
Definition: characterized by throbbing or pulsating pain, sometimes proceeded by an auramigraines
What are the 2 primary goals for pharmacology therapy of a migraine?Stop + Prevent
Definition: stimulate serotonin receptors which constricts certain vessels within the brain in order to stop migraineTriptans
What are Ergot Alkaloids used for?patients unresponsive to triptans
Ergot Alkaloids are a pregnancy category___.X
What is the action of headache medications?vasoconstriction
what drug class prevents migraines?Beta Blockers
Definition: group of neurotransmitters released from neurons in CNSendogenous opioids
__________ opioids block the release of substance P in the spinal cordEndogenous
What are the 2 basic categories of analgesics?Opioids + Non-opioids
Definition: medications used to relieve painanalgesics
Definition: substances that produce analgesia and CNS depressionNarcotics
popoxyphene hydrochlorideDarvon
hydromorphone hydrochlorideDilaudid
meperidine hydrochlorideDemerol
Morphine sulfateDuramorph
What are the benefits of combination medications?lower dose, less side effects, no addiction
popoxyphene napsylateDarvocet
Catapres + Ultramcentrally acting non-opioid drugs
Imitrex is a type of ________.Triptan
The nervous system is divided into what 2 systems?CNS + Peripheral
Definition: consists of brain + spinal cordCNS
The Peripheral Nervous System is divided into 2 divisions?Motor(somatic) + Autonomic
Definition: voluntary control over skeletal musclesMotor (Somatic)
Definition: involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle/glandsAutonomic
The autonomic system is divided into 2 sub-systems?Sympathetic + Parasympathetic
Fight or FlightSympathetic
Rest + DigestParasympathetic
Definition: junction between neuronssynapse
What are the 2 primary Neurotransmitters?Norepinephrine +Acetylcholine
Sympathetic nervesAdrenergic
Parasympathetic nervesCholinergic
Beta blocker that affects the heart?Beta1
Beta blocker that affects the lungsBeta2
What are the 2 receptor subtypes of Acetylcholine?nicotinic + muscarinic
Sympathomimeticsadrenergic agents
Parasympathomimeticscholinergic agents
Sympatholyticsadrenergic blockers
Anticholinergicscholinergic blockers
________ agents are used for their effects on the heart, bronchial tree and nasal passagesadrenergic
albuterol (Proventil) stimulates beta2 receptors in the _____.lungs
What is the disadvantage of nonselective agents?more side effects
Definition: stimulate more than 1 type of receptornonselective
Definition: stimulate one receptorselective
pseudoephedrine (__________ )stimulates alpha + beta receptorsSudafed
What are adrenergic blockers used to primarily treat?HTN
What is the most widely used class of autonomic drugs?adrenergic blockers
A direct acting cholinergic agent used to reduce intraocular pressure?Pilocarpine
A direct acting cholinergic agent used to stimulate the smooth muscle of the bowel or urinary tract after anesthesia?Bethanechol
_________ acting agent inhibits acetlcholinesterase (the breakdown of Ach)Indirect
_________ is a cholinergic agent used to treat myasthenia gravis.Mestinon
What are anti-cholinergic agents primarily used for?Asthma + Dry secretion
What are the side effects of Anticholinergic agents?Dry mouth, constipation,urinary retention, tachycardia
__________ is an anticholinergic agent used to dry secretions prior to anesthesia.Atropine
_________ is an anti-cholinergic agent used to treat asthma.Atrovent
__________ is an anti-cholinergic agent used to treat IBS + motion sicknessHyoscine
Definition: disorder characterized by recurrent seizuresEpilepsy
Definition: involuntary violent spasms of the large skeletal musclesConvulsions
Definition: disturbances of electrical activity in the brain caused by abnormal/uncontrollable neuronal dischargesSeizures
Some ant seizure medications may _________ effectiveness of oral contraceptives during pregnancydecrease
Antiseizure meds are pregnancy category____D
How long is seizure medication withdrawn?6-12 weeks
What is the goal of an anti-seizure medication?to suppress neuronal activity JUST ENOUGH to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing
High concentrations of sodium,calcium and chloride located________the cell.outside
High concentrations of _________ inside the cell.potassium
What are the 3 mechanisms for ant seizure drugs?1. Stimulating chloride 2. Delay sodium 3. Delay calcium
What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?GABA
What 2 drug classes intensify GABA action?Barbiturates + Benzodiazapines
Benzodiazepines are used for _______ control.short term
What drug is used to treat status epilepticus?Diazepam (Valium)

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