The functions Of A Manager

The functions of a manager provide a useful framework for organizing management knowledge under the various heads of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. Managerial functions are effective tools for managers to achieve the organization’s planned objectives. They include the general administrative duties that need to be carried out in virtually all organizations. Figure 1.2 depicts the management process and shows the various functions that managers are involved in. It is evident from the figure that managers are involved in more than one activity at the same time.


Planning can be defined as the process, by which, managers decide the mission and objectives of the firm and take necessary steps to achieve the desired objectives. At the same time, managers need to determine the future trends in business and incorporate change and innovation into the organization from time to time.

There are various types of plans and they may range from planning to define the overall purposes and objectives of an organization to planning for a specific action. Planning helps a firm decide its future course of action.


Organizing is the process of assigning tasks and allocating resources to individuals to enable them to accomplish organizational goals. Organizing is a continuous process of determining (1) which tasks are to be performed, (2) how tasks can best be combined into specific jobs, (3) how jobs can be grouped into various units, and (4) the authority and reporting relationships within the corporate hierarchy. The organizational structure of a firm is a key element in determining its success or failure. If plans are not organized properly even the best of plans can fail. On the other hand, the pitfalls associated with a poor plan can be eliminated by excellent organization.


Today, staffing is better known as “human resource management” and involves manning or filling the various positions in the organizational hierarchy. Activities like determining manpower requirements, assessing the number of people presently available in the organization, recruiting and selecting candidates, training and placing them in the organization come under the purview of staffing. This function also deals with compensation, performance appraisal, promotion and career planning.


Leading is defined as “the management function of influencing, motivating, and directing people towards the achievement of organizational goals.” It is the management function that involves influencing and inspiring team members to perform well and accomplish corporate objectives. Leading involves (1) communicating with others, (2) leadership styles and approaches, and (3) motivating people to put forth the effort required to achieve organizational goals. In simple words, it is the act of making things happen through others.


The final step in the management process is to monitor the progress of an organization towards its goals. Controlling can be defined as the continuous measurement and analysis of actual operations against the established industry standards developed during the planning process and corrections of deviations, if any.

The basic control process involves (1) comparing performance with standards, (2) determining where negative deviations occur, and (3) developing remedial measures to correct deviations.

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