Approaches to Management

1. The empirical or case approach: In this approach, one tries to understand management principles with the help of cases. It also identifies the situations, wherein organizations have either succeeded or failed by following this approach.

2. The interpersonal behavior approach: This approach is based on individual psychology and focuses on interpersonal relationships.

3. The group behavior approach: This approach is based on sociology and social psychology. It stresses on the behavior of people in groups.

4. The cooperative social systems approach: It advocates a system of cooperation using both interpersonal and group behavioral aspects.

5. The sociotechnical systems approach: It realizes the impact of technical systems on personal attitudes and group behavior. This approach focuses on areas involving close relationships between technical systems and the people involved such as production, office operations, etc.

6. The decision theory approach: The focus in this approach is on the decision-making process and people involved in it.

7. The systems approach: It considers organizations to be open systems as they interact with the external environment. It recognizes the importance of the inter-relationship between planning, organizing and controlling.

8. The mathematical or “management science” approach: This approach treats management as a logical process, which can be expressed in terms of mathematical symbols and relationships.

9. The contingency or situational approach: In this approach, the main assumption is that there is no hard and fast rule for all situations. Managerial practice depends upon circumstances. Different circumstances may necessitate the use of different methods.

10. The managerial roles approach: This approach had been developed by studying the work methods of five chief executives. The study identified ten managerial roles, which were grouped into three catsegories – interpersonal, informational and decisional roles.

11. The McKinsey’s 7-S framework: The seven S’s used in this approach are strategy, structure, systems, style, staff, shared values and skills.

12. The operational approach: This approach attempts to develop the science and theory of management by drawing upon concepts, principles, techniques and knowledge from other fields and managerial approaches.

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