# Indian Civil Services Syllabus -Electrical Engineering

Detailed Preliminary and Main exam Syllabus for Electrical Engineering - Optional are:

Preliminary Examination
Electrical Circuits-Theory and Applications- Circuit components, network graphs, KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions.

Signals & Systems- Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals & systems ; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals.

Control Systems- Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. LTI systems : time domain and transform domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquists criterion. Bode-plots, Design of lead-lag compensators; Proportional, PI, PID controllers.

E.M. Theory- Electro-static and magneto-static fields; Maxwells equations; e.m. waves and wave equations; wave propagation and antennas; transmission lines; micro-wave resonators, cavities and wave guides.

Electrical Engineering Materials- Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials : conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductor, p-n junction; solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials : polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials: behaviour and application.

Analog Electronics- Diode circuits: rectifiers filters, clipping and clamping, zener diode and voltage regulation. Bipolar and field effect transistors (BJT, JFET and MOSFET) : Characteristics, biasing and small signal equivalent circuits. Basic amplifier circuits; differential amplifier circuits. Amplifiers : analysis, frequency response. Principles of feedback; OPAMP circuits; filters; oscillators.

Digital Electronics - Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean function; logic gates, digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits : latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits; ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.

Communication Systems - Fourier analysis of signals : amplitude, phase and power spectrum, auto-correlation and cross-correlation and their Fourier transforms. Analog modulation systems : amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis; superheterodyne receivers. Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM, delta modulation. Digital modulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Multiplexing : time-division, frequency-division. Additive Gaussian noise : characterization using correlation, probability density function, power spectral density, Signal-to-noise ratio calculations for AM and FM. Elements of digital communication systems : source coding, channel coding; digital modulation & demodulation. Elements of Information theory, channel capacity. Elements of satellite and mobile communication; principles of television engineering; radar engineering and radio aids to navigation.

Computers and Microprocessors -Computer organization : number representation and arithmetic, functional organization, machine instructions, addressing modes, ALU, hardwired and microprogrammed control, memory organization. Elements of microprocessors : 8-bit microprocessors -architecture, instruction set, assembly level programming, memory, I/O interfacing, microcontrollers and applications.

Measurement and Instrumentation - Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guages, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurement of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.

Energy Conversion - Single-phase transformer : equivalent circuit, phasor-diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three-phase transformer; auto transformer. Principles of energy conversion-d.c. generators and motors: Performers characteristics, starting and speed control armature reaction and commutation; three-phase induction motor; performance characteristics, starting and speed control. Single-phase induction motor. Synchronous generators: performance characteristics, regulation, parallel operation. Synchronous motors: starting characteristics, applications; synchronous condensor. FHP motors, permanent magnet and stepper motors, brushless d.c. motors, single-phase motors.

Power Systems

Electric power generation : thermal, hydro, nuclear. Transmission line parameters: steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables. Distribution systems : insulators, bundle conductors, corona and radio interference effects; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction. Economic operation. Principles of over current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays, circuit breakers, concept of system stability. HVDC transmission.

Power Electronics and Electric Drives - Semiconductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET, static characteristics, principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase controlled rectifiers; bridge converters-fully controlled and half controlled; principles of thyristor chopper and inverter. Basic concept of speed control of DC and AC motor drives.

Elements of IC Fabrication Technology - Overview of IC Technology. Unit steps used in IC fabrication : wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of poly-silicon, silicon, silicon-pnitride and silicon dioxide; metallisation and passivation.

Mains- Electrical Circuits–Theory and Applications
Circuit componets; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filter-theory : design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation : Input formats; methods of education formulation; solution of equations; output formats; SPICE.

Signals & Systems - Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

E.M. Theory- Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflaction and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line : Distributed parameter circuits, travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Waveguides : parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and cylindrical wave guides, resonators. Planar transmission lines; stripline, microstripline.

Analog Electronics - Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.

Digital Electronics -Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits : latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

Energy Conversion-Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines : charateristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors.

Transformers : principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control. Special machines : Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors single-phase motors; FHP.

Power Electronics and Electric Drives : Semiconductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

Analog Communication- Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statististical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

Microwaves and Antenna-Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves : ground waves, sky wave, space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications. Antenna : Various types, gain, resistance, band-width, beamwidth and polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas; microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services : Klystron, magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated circuits. Microwave measurements.

Paper-II

Control Systems - Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. LTI systems : time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquist’s criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

Electrical Engineering Materials- Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials : conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction; solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials; polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials : behaviour and application. Photonic materials : refractive index, absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and opto-electronic materials.

Microprocessors and microcomputers-8-bit microprocessor : architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBM PC architecture : overview, introduction to DOS, Advanced microprocessors.

Measurement and Instrumentation-Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.

IC Technology -Overview of IC Technology. Unit-steps used in IC fabrication : wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of poly-silicon, silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon di-oxide; metallisation and passivation.

Power Systems : Analysis and Control -Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance materices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmeterical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability : swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission; FACTS. Computer control and Automation : Introduction to energy control centres; various states of a power system; SCADA systems and RTUs. Active power control : Speed control of generators, tie-line control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.

Power system protection-Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection : Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management -Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy : Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy : Thermal conversion : photo-voltaic conversion. Wave-energy. Importance of Energy Management : Energy audit; energy economics : discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.

Digital Communication- Pulse code modulation (PCM), diferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

Satellite Communication, Radar and TV - Satellite Communincation : General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar : Basic principles, Pulsed systems : CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radars. Television Systems : Television systems and standards, Black-and White-and Colour-TV transmission and receiver systems.

Fibre Optic System -Multiplexing : Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing. Optical properties of materials : Refractive index absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links.